Bibliography and Citation Guide

Bibliography is the list of the sources used for a research paper or homework. It is attached at the end of the paper in alphabetic order. In the case that a work including in book, internet, journal, database or newspaper produced by the others shall be used in our works, it is our legal and moral liability to mention the owner of the workpiece. If you pretend the citation is your own idea, it is a crime. We as Marmara College use MLA (Modern Language Association of America) for bibliography. Teachers are liable to warn the students to obey the bibliography rules for the papers. It is forbidden to use the sources which are not reliable in the papers.

 Bibliography Preparation

It is a must to state the bibliographic information (name of the author, name of the work, publishing place, publishing house, publishing date etc.) in relation to the citation and references in the papers in the bibliography. The first letter of the book or other sources must be capital and written in italic. It is required to determine the place where the sources used are published (printed, web, pdf, CD, DVD, TV etc.)

Example: If the source is a book which has a writer:

Author’s Surname, name. Book’s name. Publishing place: Publishing house, publishing year. Edition

Tekin, Latife. Sevgili Arsız Ölüm. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2014. Baskı.

1.      Citation-Transfer

Citation (Quotation)

Citation is the way of telling a group of words which are taken from any sources by someone other than the original writer. It is required to use the quotation marks and state the surname of the original writer and page number of the information.

Example:  “cited statement” (surname page no).


If you tell the information in an original works with your own words, you do not need to use quotation marks.

Example: Reported statement (surname 34).

IB and  MLA

MLA INTERNET ADDRESS  (Manual entry mode)


Book [Multiple Authors]

1. Example 1 author

Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Warner Books, 1982. 

2. Example 0 authors

American Renaissance. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2004. 

3. Example 2 authors

Hopper, Henry, and Peter Gwunn. Fun With Physics. New York: Harper & Row, 1997. 

4. Example 3 authors

Thompsen, Adam, Mary Jensen, and Dori Graham. Coexisting Under Stress. Chicago: New Age Press, 2005. 

5. Example more than 3 authors

Adams, Barry, et al. Encyclopedia of Great Civilizations. New York: Shooting Star Press, 1994. 

Book [Multiple Editors]

1. Example 1 editor

Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. 3rd ed. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1980.

2.Example 2 editors

David, Edward, and Frank Edwards, eds. Computers. New York: Harper Collins, 1994.

3. Example 3 editors

Abbot, Jack., Greg Brunning, and Matt Doren, eds. System Dynamics. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 2001.

4. Example more than 3 editors

Edwards, T., et al., eds. The Poetry of Edgar Allen Poe. New York: Newcastle Press, 2004.

Previously Published Book in a collection


Flowers, Betty S. "Wrestling with the Mother and Father:  ‘His’ and ‘Her’ in Adrienne Rich."  Private Voices, Public Lives: Women Speak on the Literary Life. Ed. Nancy Owen Nelson. N.p.: University of North Texas Press, 1995. 54-63.  Rpt. in  Contemporary  Literary Criticism. Ed. Deborah Smith. Vol. 104. Detroit: Gale, 1982. 430-44.

Previously Published Journal In a collection


Spilka, Mark. "Of George and Lennie and Curley's Wife: Sweet Violence in Steinbeck's Eden."  Modern Fiction Studies 65.3 (1974): 43-50.   Rpt. in  Contemporary  Literary Criticism.  Ed. Deborah Smith. Vol. 104. Detroit: Gale, 1982. 430-44.

Book - Anthology or Story Collection

Examples: Allende, Isabel. "Toad's Mouth." Reading Poetry: An Anthology of Poems. Ed. Robert DiYanni. New York: Random House, 1989. 41-47.

  1. Chase, Richard. "Old Christmas Eve." Grandfather Tales. Ed. H. L. Pick. New York: Viking, 1973. 58-60. Simon, Mark.
  2. "Understanding Gatsby." Readings on The Great Gatsby. Ed. Richard Morrow. Chicago: Chelsea House Publishing, 2001. 54-59.

Encyclopedia Article

Example - well-known encyclopedia, with author:

Gillingham, John. "Norman Conquest." The World Book Encyclopedia. 1998 ed.

Example - not well-known encyclopedia, no author:

"Origins of the Norse King Myth." Mythology of the Celts and Vikings Chicago: Gale, 2001.

Magazine Article


Crickmer, Barry. "Can We Control Spending?" Nation's Business Apr. 1993: 22-24.

Scholarly Journal Article


Clark, Herbert H., and Thomas H. Carlson. "Hearers and Speech Acts." Language 58 (1982): 332-373.

Newspaper Article


Schwartz, John. "Obesity Affects Economic, Social Status." Washington Post 30 Sep. 2003: A1, A4.

Bryant, Alfred. "Our Role in the U.N." Letter to the Editor. Oregonian [Portland, OR] 15 Dec. 1997: B7.

Online Database: Encyclopedia

Example - no author:

"Chiru." Funk and Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. 2002. EBSCOhost. Eugene Public Library, Eugene, OR. 15 Apr. 2003.

Example - with author:

Rogers, Frank. “Southern Flying Squirrel. “Encyclopedia of Animals. 2005. EBSCO Animals. EBSCOHost. Sprague H.S. Lib., Salem, OR. 15 Feb. 2004.

Online Database: Magazine


Schaller, George B. "Realm of the Snow Antelope." Natural History May 1996: 46-48. MAS Ultra - School Edition. EBSCOhost. South Eugene High School Lib., Eugene, OR. 15 Apr. 2003.

Online Database: Scholarly Journal


Borman, W.C. “Role of Early Development in Reading Skills.” Journal of Applied Psychology 78 (1998): 443-449. EBSCOhost. Benson H.S., Portland, OR. 21 May 2001 .

Online Database: Newspaper


Stern, Henry. "Pre-emptive Blitz Set to Meet Threat of West Nile." Oregonian [Portland, OR] 9 Apr. 2003. Newsbank. Roseburg High School, Roseburg, OR. 14 Apr. 2003.

Internet Encyclopedia Article


"Ernest Hemingway." MSN Encarta 27 Dec. 2005 .

Internet Magazine Article


Rivlin, Gary. "Leader of the Free World." Wired 11 Nov. 2003. Wired Magazine. 17 Feb. 2004


Bohannon, John. "The Human Genome in 3D, at Your Fingertips." Science 44 (2002): 735-737. 26 Jan. 2004 .

Internet: Newspaper Article


Stern, Henry. Pre-emptive Blitz Set to Meet Threat of West Nile."  Oregonian  [Portland, OR] 9 Apr. 2003. 14 Apr. 2003.

Internet: Personal Website


Pearl, Nancy. Pearl's Picks. 15 Jan. 2006. 6 May 2006.

Internet: Professional Website


Gough, Alex. "Charting Data at the Bottom of the World." O'Reilly Network - Articles. 4 May 2006. O'Reilly. 15 May 2006.

Electronic Image


Williams, Kathy. "Green Apples." Photograph. Kathy's Apples. 23 Feb. 2001. 29 May 2004.

Internet - Sound


Kennedy, John F. "The Kennedy Withdrawal." 2 Oct. 1963.  White House Miller Center of Public Affairs.  23 May 2005.

Internet Video Clip


Martin Luther King, Jr.: "I Have a Dream". 28 Aug. 1973. American Rhetoric. 2 Mar. 2001 .



Soja, Julie. "Re: Hubble Space Telescope image enhancement techniques." E-mail to the author. 23 Jan. 1997. Smith, Sandy. "Seattle Viaduct Alternatives." E-mail to Jane R. Doe. 17 Sep. 2005.

Internet - Online Posting/Blog


Merrian, Joanne. "Spinoff: Monsterpiece Theatre." Online posting. 30 Apr. 1994. Shakespeare. The Global Electronic Shakespeare Conf. 23 Sept. 2002 .



"Spiders." Grolier's New Multimedia Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Danbury: Grolier, 1996.



The Terminal. Dir. Steven Spielberg. With Tom Hanks  and Catherine Zeta Jones. DVD. Dreamworks Video, 2004.



Gates, Bill. Telephone interview. 15 Oct. 2003. Dreyer, Richard L. Personal interview. 24 Jan. 1992.


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